Atom Structure, Atomic number, and mass number of elements

Atom Structure: An atom is the smallest particle that preserves all of an element’s chemical characteristics. Atoms join together to form molecules, which make it possible to create solids, gases, and liquids.

For example, water consists of hydrogen and oxygen atoms that bond together to form water molecules. Many biological processes focus on dismantling molecules into their atoms and reassembling them into more functional molecules.

Particles in atom Structure

An atom structure has three particles, protons, electrons, and neutrons, and two parts, the nucleus, and shells. The nucleus is the center part of the atom and the shells are the outer part of the atom.

The center part of the atom (nucleus) has protons and neutrons. The protons of an atom have a positive charge and neutrons have no charge in the atoms.

The outer part of the atom (shells) has electrons with a negative charge.

The hydrogen atom (H) consists of one proton, one electron, and no neutrons. The numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons calculate the atomic number and mass number of the element.

Atomic Mass in an atom structure

Protons and neutrons of an atom have the same mass number. Scientists mention the amount of atomic mass in amu unit or Dalton. Protons have a positive charge, but neutrons have no charge, although they have equal nuclear mass. As a result, the number of neutrons in an atom has a significant impact on its nuclear mass.

Electrons have impacted greatly on the charge of an atom, as each electron has a negative charge which is equal to the positive charge of a proton in an atom. Scientists mention positive charges as “+1” and negative charges as “-1.”

In an atom that has no charge, a neutral atom, the number of electrons orbiting the nucleus is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus (center part) of an atom. In neutrally charged atoms, the positive and negative charges cancel each other in an atom which results leading in an atom with no net charge.

The volume of Atoms in an atom structure

After accounting for the numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons, the majority of the volume of atoms—more than 99% is space. Solid objects do not just flow through each other despite all of this space.

Negatively charged electrons in atoms, repeal each other and prohibit them from sharing the same location.

Atomic Number of an atom

The no charged atoms of an element have the same number of protons and electrons. The amount of protons in an element defines its atomic number (Z) and identifies it from other elements. The carbon atom has 6 protons, so its atomic number (Z) is 6.

Isotopes define by the different numbers of neutrons. In atoms of the same element, the number of electrons can vary, resulting in ions (charged atoms). Iron, for example, can exist in its neutral form as well as the +2 and +3 ionic states.

Atomic Number of elements

Element:Symbol:Atomic Number (Z):
HydrogenH1
HeliumHe2
CarbonC6
NitrogenN7
OxygenO8
FluorineF9
SodiumNa11
MagnesiumMg12
AluminumAl13
SiliconSi14
PhosphorusP15
SulfurS16
ChlorineCl17
PotassiumK19
CalciumCa20
ScandiumSc21
ManganeseMn25
NickelNi28
CopperCu29
ZincZn30
BromineBr35
IodineI53
BariumBa56
TungstenW74
PlatinumPt78
GoldAu79
MercuryHg80
LeadPb82
BismuthBi83
RadiumRa88
ThoriumTh90
UraniumU92
IronFe26
CobaltCo27

Mass Number of an atom

An element’s mass number (A) is the same as the number of protons and neutrons in an atom. When determining the mass number, the little component of mass from electrons is ignored. By subtracting the number of protons from the mass number, this approximation of mass can be used to readily calculate how many neutrons an element has.

Protons and neutrons have the same atomic mass unit (amu) weight. The atomic number of isotopes of the same element will be the same, but their mass numbers will be different.

Mass Number of Elements

Element:Symbol:Atomic Mass Number (A):
HydrogenH1.00784
HeliumHe4.002602
CarbonC12.011
NitrogenN14.0067
OxygenO15.999
FluorineF18.998403
SodiumNa22.989769
MagnesiumMg24.305
AluminumAl26.981539
SiliconSi28.0855
PhosphorusP30.973762
SulfurS32.065
ChlorineCl35.453
PotassiumK39.0983
CalciumCa40.078
ScandiumSc44.955912
ManganeseMn54.938044
NickelNi58.6934
CopperCu63.546
ZincZn65.38
BromineBr79.904
IodineI126.90447
BariumBa137.327
TungstenW183.84
PlatinumPt195.084
GoldAu196.96657
MercuryHg200.59
LeadPb207.2
BismuthBi208.9804
RadiumRa226
ThoriumTh232.03806
UraniumU238.02891
IronFe55.845
CobaltCo58.933195

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