What is Psychology? History, Types, and uses of Psychology
The scientific study of the mind and behavior call Psychology. Psychology is the scientific study of both conscious and unconscious events, such as feelings and thoughts. It is a vast academic study that bridges the natural and social sciences.
Psychologists are open to learning about the emergent features of brains. It relates them to neuroscience. Psychologists work as social scientists to better understand the behavior of individuals and societies.
Although, a psychologist is a professional specialist or researcher who works in the Psychology field. Behavioral and cognitive scientists are the other names of psychologists. Some psychologists try to find out the role mental functions perform in personal and social conduct.
However, Psychologists study observation, memory, attention, emotions, intelligence, subjective evaluations, motivation, mental abilities, and personality. Interpersonal communication, psychological flexibility, family flexibility, and other fields of social psychology are of interest to psychologists.
They also take into account the unconscious mind. Research psychologists use empirical approaches to infer causal and correlation links between psychosocial variables.
While psychological knowledge is frequently used in the analysis and treatment of mental health disorders. It uses to understand and solve difficulties in a wide range of human activities. According to many views, Psychology ultimately intends to assist society.
Other psychologists perform scientific research on a variety of mental processes and behavior-related issues. The latter group of psychologists normally works in university settings. Another group of psychologists is used in industrial and organizational contexts. Others work on human development, aging, sports, health, forensic science, education, and the media, among other things.
History of Psychology:
Ancient civilizations such as Egypt state, Greece state, China state, India, and Persia states all learned psychology philosophically. The Ebers Papyrus from Ancient Egypt mentions sadness and thinking disorders.
Psychological understanding in China is developing from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, and later from Buddhist ideas.
Types of Psychology:
Psychology is a large and diverse discipline that studies human thought, behavior, development, personality, emotion, and motivation, among other things. The following are some of the most important study fields of psychology:
Abnormal Psychology is the analysis of psychopathology and abnormal activity. This specialist links to psychotherapy and clinical psychology and focuses on the investigation and treatment of a variety of mental diseases.
Biological psychology deals with analyzing the impact of biological processes on the mind and behavior. The study of neuroscience uses techniques like MRI and PET scans to examine brain injuries and anomalies call biological psychology.
Clinical psychology focuses on the analysis, diagnosis, and treatment of mental illnesses.
However, the study of human thought processes such as attention, memories, observation, judgments, issues, and language learning is known as cognitive psychology.
Comparative psychology studies the behavior of animals.
Developmental psychology is a branch of psychology that studies human growth and development throughout life, including cognitive capacities, morality, functional status, identification, and other aspects of life.
Forensic psychology is a branch of psychology that studies applying psychological concepts, such as investigations of the legal and criminal justice systems.
Industrial-organizational psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on using psychological research to improve work productivity and employee selection.
Personality psychology deals with the development of personality as well as the processes of thoughts, behaviors, and qualities that distinguish each person.
Group behavior, social effects on individual behavior, attitudes of individuals, prejudice, conformity, hostility, and related issues are all covered in social psychology.
Major Schools of Thoughts of Psychology
Comparative psychology is a topic that studies the behavior and mental processes of nonhuman animals. The subject of whether and how mental functions are local in the brain is a hot topic in behavioral neuroscience.
Thus, Biology is considered by most psychologists to be the foundation of cognition and emotion, making it a significant field of study. The application of biological concepts to the study of physiological and genetic systems underpinning behavior in humans and other animals call behavioral neuroscience or biological psychology.
Individuals with mental deficiencies attributable to physical brain damage inspire new findings in this field, from Phineas Gage to H.M. and Clive Wearing.
Modern behavioral neuroscience trace back to 1870. Paul Broca in France linked speech production to the left frontal lobe, suggesting hemispheric lateralization of brain activity. Carl Wernicke soon discovers the area require for speech comprehension.
A central tenet of behavioral science is that much of human and lower-animal behavior is learning. The learning mechanisms that apply to humans and non-human animals are principles associated with behavioral science. Behavior modification is a treatment of behavioral scientists to assist people replaces undesired behaviors with more desirable ones.
Cognitive psychology is the study of cognitive states that the perception, attention, language comprehension and production, memory, and problem-solving. Cognitivists are researchers who work on the subject of cognitive psychology. They depend on their brain performance on an information processing model.
The study of behaviors, ideas, feelings, and the social environment that influences human relationships to called social psychology. Social psychologists look into things like how people impact the conduct of people. The creation of perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs about others is an example of social Psychology.
However, understanding how people process, and recall social information is the goal of social cognition. It combines components of social and cognitive psychology. Group dynamics research includes investigations into the nature of leadership, organizational communication, and phenomena.
Sociological notions such as the social role, sick role, social class, life events, culture, migration, and complete institution inspire the Social psychologists. It is the study of psychiatric diseases.
Psychoanalytic is the study of the unconscious mind and its impact on daily life through theories and medical activities procedures. Treatment for mental problems is possible on theories and practices. Psychoanalysis is not a single entity.
Uses of Psychology:
Psychological testing has a long history, with tests for the Chinese civil service reaching back to 2200 BC. Written exams were first introduced during the Han era (202 BC – 200 AD). By 1370, the Chinese system demanded a stratified set of tests that consist of essay writing and knowledge of a variety of subjects.
Therefore, in Europe, mental evaluation tests involve different methods, with Aristotle’s theories of physiognomy—character judgments on the face—develop in the 4th century BC Greece. The idea of phrenology, a study of mind and intelligence depends on simple assessments of neuroanatomy.
Mental health care:
For the first time, Clinical psychology was used in the United States to describe the practice of providing psychological health services. However, members of the school psychology and counseling psychology professions occasionally participate in clinical psychologist-like procedures.
Clinical psychologists are usually those who complete their clinical psychology doctoral degrees. Some members of the aforementioned groups in Canada normally fall under the umbrella of professional psychology.
However, Professionals in Canada and the United States get bachelor’s degrees and Ph.D. Clinical psychology doctoral students often complete one year of pre-doctoral internship and one year of post-doctoral internship.
Although, Clinical psychologists can work in a variety of settings, including research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and management.
The studies of human learning in educational environments, the efficacy of intervention programs, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools call educational psychology. Educational psychologists work in preschools, elementary, secondary, and postsecondary schools, as well as community groups and learning centers.
Industrial and organizational psychology calls for the application of psychological theories and concepts to companies and individuals. Industrialists apply the emerging subject of psychology to the study of scientific management approaches for enhancing workforce productivity in the early days of the profession. Initially, it calls economic psychology or business psychology; later, it was renamed industrial psychology and employment psychology.
However, the term industrial and organizational psychology introduce in 1960. One of the discipline’s goals is to maximize human potential at work.