Harvard University psychiatrists John Allan Hobson and Robert, introduce the activation-synthesis hypothesis as a neurobiological theory of dreams. This is the first neurobiological theory that publishes in the American Journal of Psychiatry in December 1977.
According to the activation-synthesis hypothesis, the physiological activity in the brain generates dreams. Sleeping and dreaming were once thought to be passive activities, but experts now know that the brain is far from silent during sleep.
The cerebral cortex is responsible for further complex activities, such as thinking development and interpretation, while the lower-lying regions of the brain are largely active in biological functions necessary to live and reproduce.
While we sleep, our brains are really active. There is a lot of neuronal activity going on. Neurotransmitters are continuously produced, and electrochemical communication takes place. The neuronal activity bound to maintain the brain working is not exclusive to a few locations.
The hypothesis suggests that dreams are the outcome of brain activation during REM sleep. It is based on changes in neuronal activity of the brainstem between waking and REM sleep.
The idea has evolved since then as technology and empirical instruments have improved in precision. Currently, the AIM Model is a three-dimensional model. It uses to determine the various states of the brain throughout the day and night.
The AIM Model proposes a new hypothesis: primal consciousness is a crucial component in secondary consciousness construction.
Introduction of Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis
Investigating the sleep-waking cycle is now possible due to the advances in brain imaging technologies. The methods of investigating like awake, REM sleep, or NREM sleep, the scientifically investigate the brain is possible.
It confirms that the brain deactivates globally from waking to NREM sleep and then reactivates to a higher extent during REM sleep than while waking. The state of the brain is examined in part by perception and its sub-states, primary consciousness and secondary consciousness.
The brain has a fully interconnected structure, which means that whatever happens in one area has an effect on many others. When neuronal activity in the lower regions of the brain, such as the brain stem, changes, the cerebral cortex notices and tries to synthesize and make sense of it all.
Primary consciousness is simply being aware of observation and emotion. It is being aware of the world through basic visual and functional motor information coming from the brain.
Secondary consciousness is a higher level of consciousness. It incorporates both primary and abstract analysis, and thinking, as well as metacognitive characteristics.
Although most animals show signs of fundamental consciousness, only humans show to develop secondary consciousness in investigations.
The waking-NREM-REM sleeping pattern is critical for the mental health of animals. Experiments results show that animals unable to enter REM sleep make an urgent attempt to enter REM stages, as well as long-term impacts on motor coordination and habitual motor patterns. It is eventually leading to the death of animals.
Homoeothermic animals define to require sleep in order to maintain their body weight and temperature.
Background of activation-synthesis hypothesis (Walking)
The perception of the world, our bodies, and ourselves call the waking consciousness. This involves humans becoming aware of their own awareness, which is a natural human talent. It is just the capability to see in the mirror and recognize that you’re looking at yourself rather than another person.
Being awake provides for the separation of tasks from normal brain states, as well as background and forefront activity. Being awake enables individuals to not only are aware of themselves and the environment around them but also to have purposeful motor control and recognize the difference between necessity and want.
What is Dream?
A dream includes all of the characteristics of basic consciousness. Yet, it forms in the brain without the use of external stimulation. Unlike in waking life, the brain is unable to recognize its own state; it is in the middle of a dream that is not identical to reality.
Dreams can sometimes contain disturbing pictures that are difficult to read. Dreams, according to the Activation-Synthesis Theory, dreams arise when the cerebral cortex processes nerve impulses to the brain stem from the body.
Difference between sleep and dream
There is a variation between being sleeping and being in a dreamlike frame of mind. Sleep defines the lack of conscious knowledge of the outside world, which means that substantial sections of the brain responsible for receiving and interpreting information are dormant during this period.
While dreaming is a type of sleep in this, it observes the greater activities of the brain. It is possible that primary consciousness is engaged during dreaming. Indeed, we are cognitively aware of our surroundings throughout dreams, and we almost certainly experience a certain sense and emotion throughout the dream, implying that at least some of our main consciousness is active.