Organic chemistry is a discipline of chemistry that examines the structure, characteristics, and interactions of carbon-carbon covalent bonds organic molecules. The structural formula of organic chemistry is identified by studying the structure. Physical and chemical qualities are learned, as well as chemical reactivity, to better understand their behavior. The chemical synthesis of natural products, medicines, and polymers, as well as the laboratory and theoretical research of individual organic molecules, are all part of the study of organic processes.
Hydrocarbons and compounds based on carbon but also including other elements, such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and the halogens, are among the substances studied in organic chemistry. The study of carbon–metal bonding is called organometallic chemistry. Furthermore, current research focuses on organic chemistry containing various organometallics, particularly the transition metals zinc, copper, palladium, nickel, cobalt, titanium, and chromium, as well as the lanthanides.
Organic compounds are the building blocks of all life on Earth and make up the vast majority of chemicals. Carbon’s valence of four formal single, double, and triple bonds, as well as structures with de-localized electrons allows for a wide range of structural diversity in organic compounds, as well as a wide range of applications.
Many commercial items in markets, such as medicines, petrochemicals and agrichemicals, as well as products derived from them, such as lubricants, solvents, plastics, fuels, and explosives, are made from it. Organometallic chemistry and biochemistry, as well as pharmaceutical chemistry, polymer chemistry, and materials science, are all branches of organic chemistry.
Physical properties of organic compounds of interest often involved both quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Melting point, boiling point, and index of refraction are all examples of quantitative data. Aroma, stability, solubility, and colour are examples of qualitative qualities.
Organic compound names can be either systematic Specifications from the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) govern systematic nomenclature. The name of a parent structure within the molecule of interest is the starting point for systematic nomenclature. Prefixes, suffixes, and numerals are added to this parent name to clearly describe the structure.