When the matter is exposed to an electromagnetic field, it gains an electrical charge and experiences a force. The positive or negative electrical charge can exist commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively. In the existence of other substances with charge, the charge is the fundamental characteristic of matter that exhibits electrostatic attraction or repulsion. Many subatomic particles have electric charge as a distinctive attribute. Charges with similar characteristics repel one another, while charges with dissimilar characteristics attract one another. “Neutral” refers to a product that has no net charge. Classical electrodynamics is the name given to an early understanding of how charged substances interact, and it is still true for issues that do not require the attention of quantum phenomena.
The net charge of an isolated system, which is described as the quantity of positive charge minus the amount of negative charge, cannot change because it is a continual property. The electric charge is carried by subatomic ions. The negative charge is transported by electrons in ordinary matter, while a positive charge is transported by protons in atom nuclei. A particle of substance will have a negative charge when there are more electrons than protons, a positive charge if there are fewer, and a neutral charge if there are equal amounts.
Electric charges produce electric fields. A magnetic field is also created by moving positive and negative charges. The electromagnetic (or Lorentz) force results from the interaction of electric charges with an electromagnet (a mixture of electric and magnetic fields). It is one of physics’ fundamental forces of nature. Quantum electrodynamics is the study of charged particle reactions controlled by photons.
The coulomb (C) is the SI-derived amount of electrical charges, named after French physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb. In electrical engineering, the ampere-hour is also extensively used (Ah). The fundamental charge (e) is commonly used as a unit in physics and chemistry. The Faraday factor is frequently used in chemistry to calculate the charge on a mole of electrons. The charge is commonly represented by the lowercase letter q.