Macroeconomics is a branch of economics that explains the overall performance of economics like structure, behavior, and decision-making.
However, using interest rates, taxes, and government expenditure to control the stability and growth of the economy is an example of Macroeconomics. This includes the local, national, and international economies.
Economists Emi Nakamura and Jon Steinsson explain in 2018 that economic data indicating the consequences of various macroeconomic programs is still highly poor and vulnerable to major debate.
Although, macroeconomists deal with the GDP (Gross Domestic Product), unemployment, government revenue, average level of prices, production, demand, prices, saving, investment, energy, international commerce, and global finance.
The two most basic branches of economics are macroeconomics and microeconomics. As part of the 2030 Agenda, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 17 aims to improve International macroeconomic stability with policy coordination and coherence.
Macroeconomics starts from the previously separate subjects of the business cycle and monetary theory. Before World War II, the quantity theory of money was particularly prominent. It comes in many different formats, including one based on the work of Irving Fisher.
AD-AS Model of Macroeconomics:
The AD-AS Model is now widely in use of textbooks to explain the macroeconomics concept. Thus, given a balance in aggregate demand and aggregate supply, this model displays the price level and real production level.
IS-LM model of Macroeconomics:
The IS-LM model explains how aggregate demand is created. It deals with the question, What is the quantity of commodities requested at any given price value level? This model illustrates which interest rate and output combination will maintain equilibrium in both the goods and money markets.
The goods market explains as having equal investment, and public and private savings (IS). The money market explains as having equal money supply and liquidity preference.
The IS-LM model explains and illustrates monetary and fiscal policy implications. It lacks the intricacies of most recent macroeconomic models. Nonetheless, the correlations in these models are comparable to those in IS-LM.
Growth models of Macroeconomics:
The growth model of Robert Solow becomes a standard textbook model for explaining long-term economic growth. The model starts with a production function in which national output is equal to the sum of two inputs: capital and labor. The Solow model implies that labor and capital are utilized at constant rates throughout the business cycle, with no variations in unemployment or capital utilization
However, only an increase in capital stock, a larger population, or technological improvements that lead to improved productivity can create an increase in production or economic growth.
Basic Components of Microeconomics:
- Output and Income
- Inflation and Deflation
- Monetary Policy
- Fiscal Policy