The electronic equipment that typically runs in a computer programme is known as a central processing unit (CPU), sometimes known as a central processor, main processor, or simply processor. Basic arithmetic, logic, managing, and input/output (I/O) tasks are performed by the central processing unit (CPU) according to the instructions in the programme (Here I/O stands for Input and output. I for Input and O for output ). External components such as primary memory and I/O circuitry and specialized processors such as graphics processing units are examples of this (GPUs).
CPUs have develop in terms of form, design, and implementation over time, but their essential operation has remained nearly same. The arithmetic–logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic and logic operations, processor registers provide operands to the ALU and stores the data of ALU operations, and a control unit orchestrates the retrieval (from memory), decoding, and implementation of commands by directing the organized operations of the ALU, registers, and other parts.
The majority of modern CPUs are built on integrated circuit (IC) microprocessors, which contain one or more CPUs on a single chip. Multi-core processors are microprocessor circuits with multiple CPUs. Individual physical CPUs, also known as processor cores, can be multiprocessing to produce virtual or logical CPUs.
An integrated device that comprises a CPU may also have memory, peripheral interfaces, and other computer parts; these integrated devices are referred to as micro-controllers or systems on a chip (SoC).
Array processors is called vector processors, feature numerous processors that run in parallel, with no single unit acting as the central processing unit. Virtual CPUs are a dynamically aggregated computing resource concept.